Much misunderstood: Non-verbal learning disorder
When you first saw the term “non-verbal learning disorder,” did you think it meant that the people with this condition are nonverbal? That’s a common misunderstanding – one of many associated with NVLD (or NLD).
In fact, people with NLD are quite verbal. Where they have difficulty is in non-verbal areas (ah, now it makes sense!): things like finding their way around, reading between the lines, picking up on body language, seeing the bigger picture.
In short, individuals with NLD have difficulty integrating information, which ends up with them misunderstanding parts of their world. People in their lives often don’t understand why. Furthermore, NLD traits are often misunderstood by psychologists and other clinicians, leading to misdiagnoses and treatments that don’t help: a prime example of a Cinder Cone “falling through the cracks” situation.
It’s hard to say how common NLD is in the population. A few of the sources I looked at estimated that it affects 0.1% to 1% of the population, but I saw one that said it’s probably as common as dyslexia (estimates there range from 5%-20%). I also read that NLD affects males and females equally, and tends to run in families.
Because it traditionally has been a poorly understood condition – one that wasn’t on the radar screen of most parents, educators, and mental health professionals – many cases of NLD were not identified in childhood. This hidden disability is often diagnosed for the first time in adulthood, if at all.
If someone in your life is struggling with parts of school, work and social life but doesn’t quite seem to fit the profile (or respond to treatment) for autism spectrum, ADHD, or sensory processing disorder (SPD), check out this list of NLD characteristics, presented in no particular order:
- too literal; often doesn’t pick up on sarcasm, nuance or jokes
- good verbal skills, but struggles with reading comprehension (the big picture) and with organizing thoughts when writing
- too rigid: routines are overly important, doesn’t handle unexpected disruptions well
- overshares information, keeps talking long after listeners are ready to move on, interrupts conversations
- anxious about socializing (an especially big problem for teens) – no one seems to “get” them
- clumsy; may have challenges with fine motor skills also
- difficulty interpreting graphs and charts
- trouble with spatial orientation; not good at reading maps
- can be disoriented even in familiar places
- difficulties with planning, difficulty setting priorities
- trouble following multi-step procedures
- hard to stay focused
- OK with arithmetic, but struggles with higher math
A person with NLD may not have all of the above characteristics, and the severity of each can vary depending on the individual. (And it’s certainly true that these traits are also found in the general population!)
Some of these characteristics are also present in ADHD, autism or SPD. To make things even more complicated, an individual can have one or more of these diagnoses.
Even so, it’s worth noting the differences in the traits. For instance, people with ADHD welcome variety and change; people with NLD tend to be thrown off by disruption.
And here’s a distinction between NLD and autism spectrum disorder: people with the former are verbal thinkers, while those with the latter are visual thinkers. With an NLD brain, you need words to conceptualize a picture or place. With autism, a picture or place is visualized in the mind without words.
To restate the relationship between people with NLD and words: they are highly verbal and depend on words when thinking about the unseen, and when finding their way around. On the other hand, they struggle to extract the big picture from the words they read or hear, and to understand what’s left unsaid. What a complicated relationship with language!
Over a lifetime, NLD can make individuals feel odd or incompetent, even if they have learned to compensate. Struggles with depression and/or anxiety often result.
Meanwhile, the neurotypical world misunderstands the nature and depth of how NLD affects someone, since the challenges are masked by strong verbal skills.
What’s a person to do? If you suspect NLD, seeking out a neuropsychologist is the best route to getting a meaningful evaluation and an accurate diagnosis.
It’s not all doom and gloom, though. For one thing, here are some positive traits often associated with NLD:
- above-average to superior intelligence
- able to recall details of passages read
- advanced conversation skills (noticeable in children)
Occupational therapy and social skills training can help people of any age with NLD.
Young people with NLD can succeed in pursuing higher education. It helps if they get assistance from the school’s disability resource center.
If you’re wondering about suitable jobs, here’s one person’s informal suggestions of careers that might be a good fit for individuals with NLD.
Now I’ll close with a request: if you’ve had experience with NLD, please post a comment to let us know about your struggles and successes!
Sources (other than those linked to above):
Tags: AD/HD, anxiety, autism spectrum, depression, learning disabilities, neuropsychologist, NLD, non-verbal learning disorder, NVLD, occupational therapy, sensory processing disorder, social anxiety, social skills training, verbal skills
About janet565I've lived in the Inland Empire of Southern California since 1982. My profession involves maps and geography. I hope you find the blog useful, and wish you well....
The purpose of this blog
Climbing The Cinder Cone presents resources that may help young people who learn or think differently. The focus is on situations that "fall through the cracks," where it isn't clear what programs or treatments are appropriate.
The blog mostly addresses topics our family has dealt with (or should have known about). Anyone with experience in these areas is invited to chime in!
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