In his own way and at his own pace, our 24-year-old son Nathan has been applying online for part-time jobs. The search has been all his idea, which is a huge step forward from his previous attitude about working.
He is seeking after-hours or behind-the-scenes jobs where there’s no customer interaction. He’s probably completed five or six applications over the last few months. While they all seem to have been submitted successfully, no one has contacted Nathan for an interview. So far, he hasn’t become discouraged – but if he continues to get zero results, it’ll be no surprise if he gives up.
I’ve been pondering how we might improve his odds for getting an interview. I suggested it might help if he’d introduce himself to the store manager shortly after submitting an application. Nathan (who doesn’t like people) is against that idea. “I don’t want to talk to anyone unless I know they’re interested in hiring me.”
Having heard that Walgreens has a good reputation for hiring people with disabilities, not long ago I stopped in one of their stores early on a weekday morning and asked to speak to the manager. I was hoping he wouldn’t mind taking a few minutes to tell me how a young fellow like Nathan might increase his chances of getting hired.
The manager didn’t mind. In fact, once I explained our general situation, Joe spoke with great empathy and conviction about Walgreens employees with disabilities.
First, here’s what he said about the nuts-and-bolts of applying. Although I’d heard that online applications are often screened (and maybe eliminated) by an Applicant Tracking System, Joe said he sees all the ones for his store. On the applications he looks for basic things, like correct spelling and capitalization, that indicate the applicant made an effort. He realizes some candidates don’t have much of a work history, and doesn’t necessarily hold that against them.
Applicants who seem promising are asked to come in for a computer-based skills assessment in a back room. He’ll interview applicants who get a decent score (although on occasion he has hired bright people who didn’t do well on the assessment). For the interview, it helps when the candidate has made an effort to look presentable. At the same time, Joe prefers not being misled about an applicant’s everyday appearance. For instance, taking out all visible piercings for the interview but expecting to wear them on the job? Not good.
As for Nathan’s particular circumstances, Walgreens stores don’t have entry level behind-the-scenes jobs. Employees work in the store during store hours, and are expected to staff the cash register and otherwise assist customers as part of the job. We then talked about other types of stores, like Walmarts and supermarkets, that usually have positions more suitable for someone like Nathan.
With that said, Joe suggested Nathan could fill out an application, then come in to take the skills assessment – just to gain the experience of doing that. I’d be allowed to accompany him and help clarify any questions he didn’t understand. (One question that many applicants answer incorrectly talks about establishing rapport with a customer; most of them don’t know what “rapport” means.) The manager went a step further and said he’d even interview Nathan, to give him some real-world interview experience. How great is that?
Joe mentioned that he has visited the closest Walgreens distribution center, where people with disabilities comprise 15% of the workforce. He says overall they are a definite asset to the company, with good work habits and an upbeat attitude. A setting like that would be a better fit for Nathan than a Walgreens store; unfortunately, it’s at least a half-hour drive and not accessible by bus from where we live.
Finally, Joe told me about a corporate event a few years ago where all the store managers were gathered. A highly placed executive addressed the crowd about his determination to find a way for including people with disabilities in the Walgreens workforce. The executive’s motive? He has a son with autism, and was concerned about the lack of work opportunities for people like him.
Joe said the speech received a standing ovation, with many of the managers wiping away tears. And so a corporate commitment was born.
It was time to get on with my day. I thanked Joe for talking with me, and he offered his sincere best wishes for Nathan and our family.
When I later told Nathan about the manager’s offer for interview experience, he declined. But my chat with Joe was not a waste. I came away with insight into hiring practices, appreciation for one corporation’s commitment – and material for this blog post! Oh, and gratitude for the kind people of this world. Not a bad haul for fifteen minutes.
Most of us like getting gifts; most of us have unwrapped at least one in this festive month. But I’ll venture that the best gift people in dire circumstances could get, other than having all their problems magically disappear, is hope – new hope for better times ahead, based on real happenings that make it more than wishful thinking.
From the things I’ve learned while maintaining this blog, it seems to me that real hope is out there for our atypical young people:
Researchers continue to make connections and discoveries;
Therapists are working inside and outside the box to help their clients manage life’s challenges;
Improved financial support mechanisms, like ABLE accounts, are becoming a reality;
Many educators are committed to guiding atypical students through the learning process;
Families can access online resources and in-person support groups;
The damage that bullying can cause is increasingly recognized;
Innovative programs for housing, higher education, and employment are popping up; and
Media coverage is increasing – for instance, here’s one hour of the Diane Rehm Show on NPR devoted to supports for young people on the autism spectrum.
With all of this, the stigma is starting to diminish, ever so slightly. It’s encouraging to read and hear more about (for instance) the visual strengths of people on the spectrum, the innovative thinking of those with ADHD, or the creativity of many who have emotional challenges.
While much remains to be done, and we’re still a long way from the ideal, it is heartening to see the issues increasingly addressed and reframed. In words and actions, there’s real reason for hope.
Our family has new reasons for hope too. Nathan, who a few years ago was so down on himself and so bitter about society’s failings that he was ready to end his life, this year has willingly filled out applications for part-time work. Not only that, but he is gently prodding me to help him find more places to apply. Meanwhile, Alan had several “aha” moments this year that have led to a more mature outlook. He is less of a victim with problems someone else should fix, and more of a “I’m responsible for my efforts and choices” kind of guy.
When I started this blog about four years ago, I really didn’t expect to write a paragraph like the one above, ever.
Readers, I hope that over time you’ve found some useful knowledge and hope in the paragraphs of this blog. May your gift in the new year be new hope at a personal level. And may we all see positive changes for the broader community of neurodiverse young people.
This post from last month shared some practical tips for job searching I learned from Jackie Martin, president of Vocational Steps. When we met, Jackie and I also discussed the broader picture of employment for our neurodiverse young people. If you’d like to learn about that, read on!
In Jackie’s experience, when most employers consider whether to hire people with disabilities, they have no trouble curbing their enthusiasm – because they’d really rather not. Jackie says that when she meets with executives and asks them about hiring our young people, even if their mouths say “we’re interested,” their body language often says “not gonna happen.”
Perhaps these employers aren’t aware of the evidence showing that businesses come out ahead when they include the disabled on their staff. Low absenteeism and loyal, hard workers are among the advantages gained.
You might think that the tax incentives the government offers for hiring the disabled would make businesses more receptive. Unfortunately, obtaining those incentives means a lot of extra paperwork for the employer, whose response to the hassle is frequently “Meh – I’ll pass.”
Our family has had first-hand experience with businesses reluctant to hire atypical job-seekers. When our son Alan was getting help from the Dept. of Rehabilitation, he’d tell his employment specialist where he had applied, and she would phone the hiring manager as a follow-up to Alan’s application. The caseworker later told Alan (who had an ADHD diagnosis) that a lot of times when she’d call, the employer would ask whether his disability was physical or mental. When she’d start by saying “it falls more in the mental category,” before she could explain further they’d cut her off with, “I’m sorry, we don’t have any openings.”
There are some companies who are more proactive about hiring the disabled – and hooray for them! Some are really big; others are more local. I’ve heard from different sources that Home Depot, Walgreen’s, CVS and WalMart are among the businesses that are more inclusive of the disabled in their workforce. This link from DiversifyInc lists the top ten companies they find to be the best employers for the disabled.
The Vocational Steps website includes a link to Think Beyond the Label, which “creates opportunities for businesses and job-seekers with disabilities to connect.” The job-seeker can search for particular types of jobs in his or her area. To try it out, I searched for “sales associate” within 15 miles of my ZIP code and got 5 results: all at local Staples stores. We have many, many stores of all types in a 15-mile radius that are hiring in general; most of them must not be registered with TBTL.
An Internet search led me to a similar site called Getting Hired. In my brief test it didn’t locate too many opportunities where I live, but if you live in or near a major city, this might be another good place to start looking.
It occurs to me that businesses whose top executives are atypical (for instance, JetBlue founder David Neeleman has ADHD; Charles Schwab has dyslexia; many entrepreneurs have Asperger’s traits) might be more inclusive of atypical workers. The same would go for smaller businesses where the owner has a family member with challenges similar to those of our kiddos.
What if an employer is willing to hired the differently abled but isn’t sure how to make it work on a practical, efficient level? Consulting firms (such as Griffin-Hammis Associates) and some vocational rehabilitation counselors might be able to offer guidance. One strategy they might suggest is called “job carving.” First, the range of tasks performed in a company is reviewed. If an atypical worker could handle some of the tasks, those duties might be carved away from the workload of current employees and given to the eager new hire. This has the benefit of freeing up the existing employees to focus more of their time on higher-end tasks. Meanwhile the lower-end tasks are still getting done, without the employer paying higher-wage staff members to do them. It’s a win-win-win.
To become a successful employee, a job-seeker needs to either possess some useful skills or be trainable to acquire needed skills. For atypical young people who are wobbly on stamina and perseverance, making the time and monetary commitment for community college, trade school, or a four-year college may be out of reach. There just aren’t many low-cost, low-risk places where they can try their hand at a vocational skill to see if they like it, then get more training and practice with something they do like.
One such place Jackie told me about is Vocademy in Riverside, CA. It’s a “makerspace,” where anybody – teenager to senior citizen, neurodiverse or neurotypical – can come in and learn real-world, hands-on skills. The introductory classes are free, after which the participant might pay $45 – $130 for a 4-hour class plus the cost of materials. There are no grades, tests, or semesters; it’s possible to switch to another skill at any time. The participant can decide how much skill he or she wants to acquire in doing things like (among others) 3D Printing, Laser Engraving, Welding, Woodshop, Sewing, Home and Construction, Costumes and Prop Making, and Programming and Coding. Those wanting to practice what they’ve learned in class can buy a membership, which allows them to use the tools and space at the Vocademy facility in the afternoon and evening. Memberships generally run from $100 to $150 per month.
One of Jackie’s goals is to create another program, based on the Vocademy model, that would provide training and access to skills that commonly fall in the atypical young person’s wheelhouse, including culinary arts, video game design, and software testing.
Brainstorming further, I’m wondering whether some programs for at-risk youth could be adapted to our kiddos. For instance, I read about one program in Los Angeles for teens with a criminal record where they are trained to direct and monitor webcams recording activities of wildlife in Alaska. Something like that might appeal to lots of our young people who think differently!
It’s clear we need innovative thinking (and doing) to increase the opportunities for our young people. Their current job-seeking climate is mostly dismal. We need alternative ways to improve the skills sets of our young people, and we need more employers to get on board with giving them a chance. With that, we can change the dynamic for a growing atypical population that, because of limited opportunity, experiences repeated rejection when attempting to earn a paycheck and do something useful.
We all want our atypical young people to be productive members of society. Many of them are capable of holding part-time or full-time jobs, but aren’t getting hired because they have difficulties with the process of applying for work. They might struggle with recognizing appropriate job openings, filling out applications, showing they have the needed skills and experience, presenting themselves well to potential employers, and staying organized throughout the search.
I recently met with Jackie Martin. She’s President of Vocational Steps, a nonprofit organization that guides and supports adults with mild special needs in obtaining and maintaining employment. I learned so much from her that it’ll take two blog posts to convey it all!
This post will focus on the practical tips Jackie shared regarding applications, resumes, and meeting potential employers.
For young people who don’t drive, one tricky part of the job search is finding potential workplaces they can reach. Adult guidance may be needed to figure this out. Would the applicant be able to get to work on foot or bike? Or, could he or she dependably get rides? If the work site is reachable by bus or local rail, the job seeker may need practice boarding the right vehicle, making transfers, and knowing where to get off.
Another obstacle in the search is lack of work experience. Even listings for what we’d consider entry-level jobs often say that months of previous experience are required. While the employer may prefer candidates who have an employment history, it’s still worth applying for a position if the job seeker’s at-home chores, volunteer work, or school experiences can be framed as skills that meet the requirements.
Applications can be straightforward, but in my experience many of them cause confusion even in high-functioning adults. Patience and persistence are good qualities to have, since some applications can take well over an hour to finish. I suspect that by making the application process an ordeal, employers weed out job seekers who aren’t all that committed.
If the application is on paper, it may be wise to practice filling out a copy before completing the actual form. The application that’s turned in should be as neat and error-free as possible.
For online applications, realize that the majority are “reviewed” by automated applicant tracking systems (ATS). If an application doesn’t have enough of the keywords the ATS has been programmed to look for, or has even one mistake, it can get sorted into the discard pile and never reach a real human being. Sad, but true. So when filling in the blanks try to use the same words and phrases seen in the job description.
Here are other tips related to online applications:
- Be ready to create a password and to record it somewhere.
- Make sure all required fields are completed accurately. It’s advisable to fill in all optional fields as well.
- If you get stuck in a loop, or kicked out of the system before finishing – you’re not alone! Take a deep breath and start over once you’ve calmed down.
- Some online applications include a section of multiple-choice social questions in which the applicant is asked to “strongly agree,” “somewhat agree,” … “strongly disagree” about the best way to handle a hypothetical situation on the job.
- Jackie’s advice is to mostly choose the extreme answers, and minimize selecting the ones in the middle range of choices. There seems to be a preference for applicants with strong opinions!
- Some atypical applicants can be brutally honest about what they’d do in a confrontation with a customer – but this is not the time to be 100% honest! The adult who’s helping them complete the application should glance over their answer selection and steer them toward more socially appropriate responses if necessary.
While some employers don’t ask for a resume, at times it may be necessary to upload one in an online application. Other employers may prefer getting a paper copy. It’s best to have a resume prepared in case one is requested.
Start by creating a basic resume on the computer. This can and should be tweaked for each application, matching the language used in the job description as closely as possible. In other words, the smart job seeker will end up creating several versions of his or her basic resume. Save each one as a separate file, because the resume created for the Burger Boy job two weeks ago may be the best starting point for the resume tailored to today’s job opening at Beef & Bun.
Many resume templates can be found online. Following the header, which features contact information, most resumes now start off with a summary statement instead of the “Objective” we old-timers used to put at the top. However it’s identified, Jackie says the summary can be thought of as a branding statement: what are the skills and qualities the job seeker is bringing to the table?
Because our atypical job seekers really need to make a positive impression in order to have a chance, Jackie suggests that they take the extra step of making mini-resumes printed on card stock. The mini-resume, sized so that four of them can be cut from an 8 1/2 x 11 sheet, provides the applicant’s contact information and highlights what s/he’s got to offer. Like a business card, the mini-resumes can be given to the manager when the job-seeker follows up after an application (see below) as a tangible reminder of who this person is.
The application process
According to Jackie, it’s important that the job seeker keep a record of when and where they’ve applied. Big calendars (on a whiteboard or a desk blotter, for example) are a good way to keep track.
The applicant should plan a drop-in visit to the hiring manager one week after submitting the application. The script could go something like “Hello, I’m [Hiram Eenow] and I applied for the ____ position last week. Do you recall whether you’ve reviewed my application?” [The manager gives a reply] “Well, I’m very interested in being interviewed if the position is still open. Here’s a summary of what I can offer [applicant hands the manager his/her mini-resume]. May I have your business card?” [The manager replies] “Thanks for your time; I hope to see you again soon.”
An encounter like that will probably stand out in the manager’s mind!
Afterwards, the applicant should drop by every two weeks to make polite inquiries. That seems to be a good frequency for reminding the manager of one’s interest without being a pest. The applicant may need help after each encounter to interpret the cues in the manager’s body language and tone.
There’s lots more to the job search process than what is mentioned above. I’ve merely tried to share some insights that may not be well known.
Without having an “in” at a company, the odds can be slim for anyone to get an interview, let alone get hired. Using knowledge of what may help or hinder the application process makes the odds that much better – and our atypical young people need as much of a boost as we can possibly give them.
The attributes needed to be a successful adult are often lacking in our atypical teens and young adults. Not only are the traits lacking, but many times there’s no sign of them even being ready to sprout forth. This leads to deep-rooted anguish for the individual and much pacing and wringing of hands for those on the sidelines.
What exactly are the adult attributes and behaviors we are waiting for, and how do we encourage them to grow? Are some strategies for encouraging their growth more effective than others?
This was the subject of a presentation I attended in 2014 at the LDA International Conference in Anaheim. The presenters were Jen Phillips and Char Reed of OPTIONS Transitions to Independence in Carbondale, IL. OPTIONS is a residential transition program for youth with “complex learning disabilities” (having a combination of brain-based challenges).
Jen and Char identified ten attributes or behaviors that provide a foundation for adulthood. The attributes are presented below, along with bulleted lists of strategies and tools employed by the OPTIONS staff to foster each attribute. (Most of the strategies listed refer to what the young person learns to do, but some refer to what the supportive adult does).
The staff had also polled students who were successfully finishing the OPTIONS program about which strategies they felt had been most effective. Those strategies are in bold blue.
What’s your reaction to these attributes and strategies?
Follow through with expectations and/or responsibilities. This will benefit the student in every arena of adult life.
- Develop checklists
- Use an assignment book or electronic planner
- Break tasks into smaller segments
- Identify resources (materials or people) that can help
Act and speak with honesty and integrity. Among other benefits, having these skills reinforces taking ownership for one’s actions.
- Seize “teachable moments”
- Rehearse or role play
- Practice paraphrasing what was heard
- Get assistance with problem solving
- Use the communication model (“I feel ____ because I want or need ______”)
- Reinforce desired behaviors
Develop and demonstrate interpersonal communication skills. Students are guided to move beyond the communication patterns of childhood.
- Role play or rehearse
- Pause to consider outcomes of response before responding
- Use the communication model
- Organize thoughts in writing before speaking
- Paraphrase to reflect understanding and check perceptions
- Ask clarifying questions
- Maintain eye contact
- Be aware of nonverbal cues; be ready to gracefully disengage or change the subject
Develop and implement organizational strategies. Organizing materials and personal space decreases distress and chaos in everyday life.
- Set aside specific time for specific organizational tasks
- Use check-sheets or charts
- Use planner or electronic organizational tool
- Break a large task into smaller parts; establish due dates and stick to them
- Display pictures of desired outcomes (such as a neat desk)
- Develop systems or routines, and use them consistently
- Have a trusted person assist regularly in organizational tasks
Maintain good personal hygiene. Often, students don’t consider others’ perceptions of poor hygiene and what the consequences might be.
- Hold the young person accountable for this; reinforce successful efforts
- Be ready to break down tasks (such as how to shampoo) and teach them each step
- Use checklists as reminders
- Display pictures of desired outcomes as prompts and reinforcers
- Assist with pre-planning for hygiene
- Reinforce the importance of consistency
Develop and implement strategies to problem solve. Trying to solve problems is better than becoming overwhelmed by them and shutting down!
- Identify the problem clearly and concisely
- Rate the problem in terms of intensity and urgency
- Identify available resources that can help solve the problem
- Identify steps to take to solve the problem
- Identify desired outcome
- Evaluate the relative success of whatever actions were taken to solve the problem
- Identify what needs to be done differently next time; adjust behaviors
Demonstrate respectful behavior. This includes managing emotions and delaying gratification.
- Use the communication model
- Role play or rehearse
- Disengage from a situation, but set a time to re-engage
- Prompt the student
- Reinforce desired behaviors
Implement effective time management. Students eventually are able to meet time-related requirements on their own.
- Use planner or electronic organizational tool
- Break a large task into smaller parts; establish due dates and stick to them
- Use a watch or electronic devise with auditory and/or visual reminders
- Post a schedule or calendar
- Use check-sheets or charts
- Provide prompts, encouragement and reinforcement
- Develop a system or routine and implement consistently – [this wasn’t in the original list of strategies]
Demonstrate safe behaviors. This includes use of medication, personal health, community access, transportation, alcohol, drugs, and sexual activity.
- Demonstrate safe behavior repeatedly; rehearse and reinforce (don’t assume the student has internalized the message until s/he consistently demonstrates safe choices)
- Use check-sheets
- Provide prompts and encouragement
- Participate in training or education – [this wasn’t in the original list, but is related to the first bullet point]
Take ownership for the consequences of actions. Expect and accept the consequences for one’s actions.
- Match consequences with actions
- Use the communication model
- Assist student with the steps in solving a problem – [see above]
- Rehearse how the situation could be dealt with in the future; identify resources
(You can also see much of the same information by following this link to the Prezi presentation the presenters prepared.)
From these lists, it seems that checklists, role playing, and using the communication model were in general not seen by the students as effective teaching strategies. The students did seem to gain from using planners, breaking processes down into smaller pieces, and getting help or prompts from a trusted adult.
The handout from the presentation notes that in order to help the attributes grow, the adults in the student’s life need resolve, consistency, effective communication, and patience. It’s important that all of the adults are on the same page (I say: good luck with that! But at least it’s a goal to strive for). The young person’s successes must be recognized and confirmed.
Adult life skills may not automatically appear in atypical young people, but acquiring those skills is at least equally important to the focus we place on getting a job or a degree. Although fostering their growth is a tall order, without proper cultivation the traits may wither at the seedling stage. Once these skills develop, the individual’s transition to adulthood will be smoother – and that in turn increases the chance of success in job seeking, higher education, and life in general.